4 - Modals with multiple uses

To express degrees of certainty, use must (not), can't, could (not), might (not), or may (not).

  • I'm certain the flashing lights must have caused the seizures.
  • The seizures might have been caused by stress.

To express obligation, advice, r opinions, use should (not). Do not use must (not) have for obligations, advice, or opinions about the past.

  • The TV network should have been more careful. (obligation)
  • The networks should think of issuing a health warning. (advice)
  • The children shouldn't have been sitting so close to the TV! (opinion)

Also notice how these modals are used in the passive and continuous.



3 - Past modals and phrasal modals of obligation

Should have, was supposed to, had to, and needed to all describe obligations in the past, although they sometimes have different uses.

  1. I should have stayed home and studied! (It was a good idea, but I didn't do it.)
  2. I was supposed to be studying this weekend. (It was required, but I didn't do it.)
  3. I had to wear a uniform. (We were forced to do this.)
  4. I didn't have to go with my friends, but I did. (There was no obligation.)
  5. I thought I needed to have more clothes. (I thought this was necessary.)


2 - Nown clauses after "be"

A noun clauses is a part of a sentence that has both a subject and a predicate. That is optional in noun clauses after be. Also notice the prepositions used in each sentence.

  • The only trouble with being a tow-income family is (that) we don't spend as much time together.
  • The big advantage of having Grandma at home is (that) she can baby-sit more often.


1 - Verbs followed by gerunds

Use the gerund form after these verbs.

  • I enjoy going to parties where I don't know everyone.
  • I avoid expressing my feelings and ideas in public.
  • I don't mind giving up my time to help other people.

Use the gerund or infinitive form after these verbs.

  • I can't stand being / to be in a messy room.
  • I love taking / to take my friends to cool new clubs.
  • I hate getting up / to get up for early morning classes.

Use te gerund form after these expressions containing prepositions.

  • I insist on making my own decisions.
  • I always feel like going dancing!
  • I'm into going out to new foreign restaurants.